What facebook shutting down in 2021 by US goverment | and why |

What will US goverment take down facebook for forever ? And why 

What facebook shutting down in 2021 

The US goverment have sued facebook for illegally cruising compitition. 

Recently us government officials says that Facebook cruising compitition apps by illegally and fire case on Facebook. . 
As we know facebook having popular all over the world. To determine popularity of this app you can just check your freinds phon you will see install facebook app . 
In the world other tech apps or companies like SNAP chat , tik tok , youtube and other apps .
What facebook shutting down in 2021 

Also we can see compitition regarding this apps for whos popularity or download numbers os more . But
When one or more apps trying to control all market in their hand and cruising other app by logically or illegally it's affecting on all over the world market . Like this happens with facebook. 
By officials facebook trying to get all the market in their favor by purchasing or brought the competitors apps or companies and it show the monopoly market .
What facebook shutting down in 2021 

MONOPOlY is the terms ' no compitition in the market' means all market or in terms of tred in only few or ones hand . 

Why government will shut down the facebook

In USA there is markets run with the basic of federal trade compitition.

Federal trade compitition consists three main way to trade 

* Perfect treadingarket 
* Oligo trading
* MONPOlOlY marketing.

In perfect marketing - 
This kind of trading or marketing means highest compitition in between traders or marketers. Everyone who wants to sell he's product he can sell in this trading . And this is perfect example of marketing for consumer. Here more choice available and it's result in direct benefit for consumer. 

Oligo trading  - 
In this type of trading market is devid in fifty-fifty . Competition level in this marketing is comparatively low with perfect marketing. Consumer haven't much choice. And it's result in consumer having trouble to saving their benefits . 

Monopoly treading- 
This is the main reason for facebook may be shut down by us government. In MONPOlOlY only few or only one trader or company rule over a market by cruising or brought other competitive traders. And this happen with facebook. In united States of America 48 state filled under case Facebook for monopolize the market. 

Now which act apply on Facebook 

The Sherman antitrust act 

: Section 1 and 2 consist 
- section 1 - required two or more person, as a person cannot contract combine or conspire alone .
- concern with finding an agreement

Section 2 - 
- Apply both two an individual person and to serval people 
- deal with the structure of monopolies in a market places. 

So here this conclusion we know the facebook increasing their influence in the marketplace by brought opposite parties or cruising them .

The us Federal trade commision (FTC) accused facebook of eliminating competition.
The case filled under Sherman Act section 2 . Which I already explained. 

So what do you this what facebook shutting down in 2021 bu us  government. Let me know down. 

North direction sign of AutoCAD 2020 | grab all blocks just in click AutoCAD 2020

North direction sign of AutoCAD 2020

In AutoCAd where we find north director sign for prepared drawing ? 

EASY wey to create the any other sigh is by the actual drawing for that we know the techniques to draw it. 

As a beginner we must know the all about technics for drowing different entity it grows our practical knowledge also .

First thing where we get the north direction sign for drowing. 

In google there are many website to promote different deferent sign and symbols or you can go to autodesks official website it will also help you . So I hope you get the idea about where symbols are find .

I always preferred you to use already prepared Bloks. It saves your time and effort. 

So search on Google north direction sign block. It will provide you the symbols not for direct but also all different deferent entity also . 

Uses of North direction sign

Firstly and most important use for indicating the plan of structure from mla to ground in North direction.  Without this we can't decide the direction of plan.

It shows the detailing in Side of drowing that how deep you worked for the pertiqular drawing .

It also increase attractiveness of drawing. 

Let consider a drawing without any indication of direction and a drowing with proper direction which is looking so good .

Pretty sure you pick drowing with proper direction so that's how important to give north indicator in drawing. 

Why only north direction give ? 

Pretty sure one question raising in your mind that why only north use as a indicator of drawing and other all thinks . 

The answer is simple North direction represent the north pole we all know on the earth there is two poles that is north and south pols . 

For better understanding North Pole means north direction is easy and simple and most of the people know that the north direction so it's some facts about north direction.


How to prepare the symbole of direction in AutoCAD software

This is today's main topic how to Make or draw north direction symbole 

- First type cammand line (L) 

- Draw a line vertical for specific depth
Then take your cursor on the top of the vertical line . 

- Draw a 45 degree line on top on previous verticle line on one side .

- Again draw opposite sile 45 degree line . 

- Now this will looks like arrows sign .

Then by using exclude convert in 3d form 
And below the drawing write N in bold front. 

This is simplest type of North direction sign it can make easily beginners also so I especially prefer you to draw this kind of North direction sing. 

So here we learn how to draw north direction sign in AutoCAD don't think its just for an AutoCAD swatware you can also drow this symbol for your commercial drowing or hand made DRAWING.

What is the building information design (BIM) PDF and why it's nessasary for civil engineer

 What is the building information design (BIM)  and why it's nessasary for civil engineer . 

What is the building information design (BIM)

Building information Model (BIM) : 

Is is a series of information or swatware for the structure in which data can be share . In other words BIM is series of digital model of structure in which we can save the data . Analysis of saved thata regarding structure for future planing. It can be form of 3D, 4D , 5D, 6D to ND . Now 4D is integrating time , 5D (with cost) .

Know more about 3D ,4D 5D 

BIM is most reliable and more potential process. 

Now in this days we can see construction industry are developing fast . different different kind of projects come though civil engineering. So we can say BIM required In each and every civil activity or project. Not for just structure all over industry BIM is necessary. 

If you having any knowledge about bim so you can esay get this job . So bim is not a divided in lot of swaftware it is combination of some swaftware like revit tekla  etc

What is the building information design (BIM)

In constitution industry margin or profit is reduced with many problems in projects and we all know it's result in inaccurate work, delay of work reduce quantity of work .

* Main problems in this industry and this is reduced by BIM

Delay in work and cast overruns.
In genral work delay by many reason which include by contractor, by work is executed by wrong manner, lower quality material.
delay in works RESULT in cost increase and this is most common problem in now days .

* Changes in work it may reworking.

In some project work done by previous drawing and after some time need to changes that drowing. Thats why we change in work it take lots of time and money. 

* mejor problems due to Clint

In running working state there is some changes arrived by Clint . If it's changes is greater it will effect all over the executing project. 

* Land claims problem

Land is not acquired in proper way then owners land can make disturb during work is processing it also major problems we can teke out by BIM.

Lake of proper planning

If planning of project is not properly or improper planning or management then it is difficult execute work . It's means work delay or cost overruns.
Project is will not complete in give competition period. Estimating cast increasing with increasing time etc

Improper Decision

It will mejor problems for overall project if lack of decision. In some case project will suspend. In this case also BIM is necessary. 

Supervision in wrong manner

If project not under properly supervision it results in small problems will arriving in given project and it will effect or owner and contractor. 

Lake of coordinates

This situation always happens in projects. It effects om work  if contractors behavior is bad for engineer or works or engineers behavior bad for contractor 

Actual analysis of project 

Analysis of project for cost material competition time working mangne ment ect are not done in proper knowledge this will affected all project. By wich work may be delay, cost of constitution overriding than estimate etc 

Deferent working problems are in this civil constitution industry. For reduced this problem we need to go with building information design. We can reduce quantity of this problem and work will be excited in given time period and estimating cost .

What is the building information design (BIM)

Process of building information design (BIM) 

- Following stapes commonly use in building information design.
Collection of data for a given work 

- Coding and programing data by using AutoCAD all introduction of project collection using by AutoCAD .

- Basic Design of given project by using tekla swaftware

- Preview the detailed design of given project .

- Check given detailed analysis and design for ensure that this project in proper way or not.

- If you find your project is working in position the we prepare a proper model of given project by using Revit swatware.

- After this start documentation of given work. 

- After documentation, start estimating and costing of project  Using Microsoft.

- Prepration for time management for project.

AutoCAD ,revit architect jobs fresher in 2021 | scope for revit jobs in international |

AutoCAD and Autodesk Revit Architecture jobs : 

In this Article I tried to shows you scope of AutoCAD and Autodesk revit architect jobs. 
Opportunity for jobs then salary for AutoCAD jobs. Jobs nearby your location. All information I will give you in this article . 
Specially when we are fresher there is more difficult to find the jobs Because of in proper knowledge. After some time we gets depression and then leaves hope for job. Thats all happens when we having not much knowledge. 

Scope for AutoCAD and revit in civil , electrical plumbing / structure / architect  engineering.

 India is becoming a developing country . Goverment specially focusing on infrastructure department. Almost one therd of economy investment will be infrastructure till 2014 . So we can say that in AutoCAD and Revit designing sector having more scope for jobs . Civil industry More opportunities having for fresher .

For international level we know that all world are developing very fastly infrastructure now becoming more trading. 

Now days demanding infrastructure design all around the world.

- commercial building projects.
- residntal building projects
- stediam , parks , hotel etc 
- school, university hospital projects 
- road, canal ,bridges Project
- interior design and external Designs.
- airport and metro projects . Etc etc 

Lots of project lots means more opportunities so someone say you that there is nothing in this section so you can answer them . 

Top multinational companies in the india and around world. 

I listed below some companies names .
Most reliable and most paying company.

1. HCC - hindustan construction.
2  Gammon
3. CTR - creating tomorrow ready .
4. Tata projects
5. DLF - building india
6. DSK group's
7. Reliance infrastructure
8. Simplex information LTS 
9. Sharma - prime city limited
10. ESSAR. Etc 
These are the India's largest buildings infrastructure multinational companies. Which provides regularly vacencys and most paying companies. 

How to get AutoCAD revit architect jobs as a fresher. 

First stape of any field any sector is interview. As a fresher we need extra care about interview of that vacencys because compitition is very tough in now's day so I following stapes may help you . 

1. Impress your interviewer by the you work . Show them all you have done in your training. It will be first impression is last impression. 
2. LEARN AutoCAD or revit from experts, it's benifit is any famous cad center where you complete your revit or AutoCAD. This help you to create more authority for this job. 
3. Help them to training their staff or employees. It's shows your dedication about your work . 
4.  Give all interviewers answer without having any distraction. If you learned your hole course from experts then never come any problems during interviewer questions. 
5. Show your best during interviewer give extra information about asked questions. And your dedication for this job. 

Autodesk revit 2020 free | revit 2020 online for Windows and mac | MEP job for revit in 2020

Autodesk Revit is building information technology modeling swaftware. Which is use for structural engineering, architect, land escape also MEP designers.

Autodesk revit 2020 free swaftware for autodesk user . Autodesk revit free for Windows and mac. All basic information about the revit for free at student version. 

History of revit 

Charles rever develop the original swatware in 1998. They it remained revit technology corporation in 2000 .

After this autodesk bought this swatware In 2002 . 

Revit requirement for desktop (minimum) 

- Windows 10 with 64 bit or more . 

- processor multi core intel® i5 or i7 series process. 

- RAM 8 gb .

For installment of Autodesk revit 2019 free 

Heres I drops following simplest stapes this will work both for Windows and mac os also . 

- For installation of Autodesk revit 2019 we go to official website of autodesk. 

Autodesk revit 2020 free

- you will see more options on the top menu choose the free swaftware category. 

Autodesk revit 2020 free

- here we see all free product of Autodesk like AutoCAD, revit , 3ds max ect . 

Autodesk revit 2020 free

- we want run autodesk revit 2019 swaftware search revit and click. 

- now this in interface you can see two options sign in and create account 

Autodesk revit 2020 free

- if you have already an autodesk account then simply sign in. But if you new user the it will need to create an new account. 

Autodesk revit 2020 free

- let's suppose I an new user then I get this form . Here I need to fill the some information. Like country ,education role and date of birth. 
- for acount verification give currently E-mail id . 

Autodesk revit 2020 free

- now select the version of revit. If your pc having above specifications then you choose 2019 version otherwise use previous versions. 

Autodesk revit 2020 free

Autodesk revit 2020 free

 - download the swatware instal it.  

How can I activate the licence

Check your email id which you gives before . Autodesk sent an email in your E-mail id it includes your licence key and all . 

Just simply put 

●Serial number

● Product key .

Now all data, template ect  download of this autodesk swaftware . 

Features of revit swatware

Revit MEP

Full form of this word mechanical electrical and plumbings. 
This feature is especially designed for who working with mechanical, electricals and plumbings sites for improve the overall Design project. 

Revit structure

Revit structure is the specified for structural working for create a modal and documentation in advanced BIM environment. 

Revit swatware course details stape by stape .

Now one question rising your mind where I can learn all hole course . So you first search nearest any institute. Otherwise you can also crack hole course on your computer by the youtube. 

Job for on such swaftware courses.

There is a lots of jobs available in overall india . If you learned hole course of Autodesk revit then you should apply on LINK BIM , some smallest company, or any institute as a teacher. 

If you want know about AutoCAD course or all job possibilities regarding AutoCAD click here . 

What is factor of sefty and their uses , calculation examples with pdf by adil inamdar

 Factor of sefty - 'factor of sefty it is defined as "the ratio of the maximum stress to the working stress. ' 

Factor of sefty is divided by stress that is maximum stree and working stress . 

What is factor of sefty and their uses , calculation examples with pdf 

The factor of sefty and it's significance 

● we know that " deference in theoretical and practical condition in which the mechanical elements are working."
That is why it's nessessary to avoid any accident in working condition. 

● factor of sefty it helps to provide a design idea over the theoretical Design for avoid any uncertainty or any attachments in the designing process. 

 ● now the question is what kind of uncertainty " uncertainty will be any kind of elements or componats in design process consists  wedding, reverting ( assembling operation, material strength and it's calculation. 

Formula for calculation factors of sefty 

Factor of sefty =   maximum stress 
                                 Working stress . 

Factor of sefty for other material

Factor of sefty for belittle material - 

For belittle material : the factor of sefty for belittle material is ratio of " ultimate stress per unit working or Design stress . 

Factor of sefty for ductile material - 

Factor of sefty for ductile material is the ratio of " yield point stress per unit working stress or Design stress . 

Value of the factor of sefty depend upon

 - material of components 

If the different material could be different magnitude of factor of sefty . It is not remain same of any other material so here we can say magnitude of FOS is different when material of components is different.

- index of accuracy In force calculation

The degree of accuracy is varying degrees in time with force analysis. So we can say that when force analysis done it varying the the magnitude of FOS.

Reliability of components

When we fix the magnitude of FOS it is necessary to check they componats are reliable or not sufficient reliable. It also important in value of factor of sefty.

- load type 

There is the two main load 
  ◆ static 
  ◆ and dynamic load 

 static load means the load of structure which load of structure itself other load not include.

Dynamic load is the moving load further upward and down word direction.

The magnitude of FOS is varying with type of load .

 - Effects failure of FOS

Loss due to time 
Property loss 
Life of structure.

What is factor of sefty and their uses , calculation examples with pdf 

Table for factor of sefty for other componats.

For more details please comment. 
Thank you for reading till the here. 

786 amazing fact about 786 number | the meths about 786 nomber you need to know

Amazing fact that you need to know about 786 numbe.

786 amazing fact about 786 number

Have you try to ever figure out what exactly meaning is 786. If you not so get ready to this amazing article today we clear all doubts in your mind . So here we go. 

Fact 1 
Meaning of 786 exactly. 
Basically this number is important mostly in Islam religion specially india and pakistan. People believe the 786 is the holy nomber . They also believe that this number gives hope them . Meanwhile how much Truth this though of people let me know in comment section.

Fact 2 
Save NOTE with number 786.
The people who have believe in this number they mostly save the currency of note which included 786 number. People says that this kind of currency HELP to learn more finatial requirements. 

Fact 3 
786 angle nomber.
This meths come from mostly in Indian and pakistan muslims. According to them 786 is the related to angle . Means in heaven the angle . 
Are you shocked by this fact of you let me comment section. 

Fact 4 
Area of 786 code .
The area of 786 is the area like area 51 in united States of America. Area 786 is area with mist suspensions. This is placed at Florida in southern region. 786 is first put in service in March 1998. 

Fact 5 
786 in Islam meaning
In Islam religion people believe that this number is more important than another nomber. Most of the people who have believe this is nomber is something connection of god. 

Fact 6 
Lucky 786 numbers note 
nomber of the note is 786 then note is lucky. People says that if 786 nomber mentioned in any note means that note gives you benefits. That's is why mostly muslims people save this note . 

Fact 7 
786 meaning by hinduism
You thing till now there only muslims believe that meths but you wrong things yes hindus also believe . 

Fact 8
786 is form of om by Hindus
You will shocks by this  fact that some Hindi says that 786 is an number format of om . That means the number 786 is connected with om . 

Fact 9 
786 is in the Bible
The number of 786 is means jesus just as 19 of VAHD given by king Solomon since 30k year ago . 

Fact 10 
The number of 786 is Bismillah 
The tikat number of letter of Bismillah al-rhman al-rahim.
So what you think about fact of number 786  this all of the facts let me comment below
If any problems regarding this or I miss something so definitely tell me . 

Read more like such content

American literature written by Norton Anthology | from 1914 to 1945 with simple explanation

American literature written by  Norton Anthology | from 1914 to 1945  with simple explanation

American literature from 1914 to 1945

With explanation. 

Hey everyone. Today we ganna know more about literature the American literature written by Norton anthology in simple for and with explanation.

This is education blog teke this for upgrade the knowledge so i don't take your more time . 

Let's start 

American literature today from 1914 to 1945

written by the Norton Anthology and we'll begin with talking point 1 the

The two war as historical markers the two world

wars World War one 1914 to 1918 and world war two 1939 to 1945 bracket a period during which the United States became a fully modern nation both wars.

mobilized the countries industries and technologies spurred their development and uprooted citizens World War one left many Americans distrustful of international politics and committed to steering the nation back to pre-war modes of life many were weary of the growing influence of socialist and communist ideas.

which they associated with labor unions and immigrant radicals Congress and active sweeping exclusionary immigration acts in 1924 radically curtailing the flow of immigrants into the country for other Americans World War one assured in more progressive forms of political and social life women and racial minorities gained some civil liberties and some new social freedoms during this period.

Great Depression

though they were still faced with discrimination political social and

cultural life in the United States was transformed by the stock market crash of 1929 which led to an economic depression with a 25 percent unemployment rate this economic catastrophe was known as the the Great Depression did not fully end until the United States entered World War two in 1941 the war unified the country politically and revitalized industry and employment the United States emerged from World War two as a major industrial and political power.

Literature of morden world

the literature of the modern period reflects the nation's attempts to come to terms with the many meanings of modernity some writers celebrated modern developments while others lamented them most writers believed that old literary forms would not work for new times and were inspired by the possibility of creating something entirely new writer of the period debated the uses of literary tradition some wanted to honor traditional forms and language and to include allusions to kena nautical works of the past others saw such Houma jazz imitative or old-fashioned still others is literary tradition oppositional e alluding to Kenna nautical literature ironically our fracturing traditional literary formulas writers of the period.

also debated the place of popular culture in serious literature some embrace popular forms while others rejected them as cynical commercialism another issue was the question of how far literature should engage itself in political and social struggle some felt that art should participate in the politics of the time while others unto itself talking point to changing times the 1920s saw ideological debates pitting adherence to small-town values such as the work ethic social conformity duty and responsibility against internationally minded radicals and affluent young people who argued for more diverse permissive.

and tolerant lifestyles the social codes governing sexual behavior became less restrictive these social changes found their most influential theorists an Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud inventor of the practice of psychoanalysis an important developer of the concept of the unconscious women gain the right to vote in 1920 and found new freedoms and educational possibilities professional opportunities Geographic mobility and sexuality around 1915 as a direct result of the industrial needs of the World War one job opportunities opened up for African Americans in the factories of the north many left the south for northern cities and what came to be known as the great migration.

even though African Americans faced racism segregation and racial violence in the north a black American presence soon became powerfully visible in urban cultural life the Harlem Renaissance an outpouring of innovative cultural production by African Americans centered in Harlem a neighborhood of New York City was one manifestation of this development class inequality generated intellectual and artistic debate during the modern period .

German philosopher Karl Marx

following the rise of the Soviet Union the American Left increasingly drew its intellectual and political program from the tenants of who located the roots of human behavior in economics and believed that industrialized societies were divided by an antagonistic relationship between capital and labour Americans who thought of themselves as marxist in the 1920s and 1930s were usually subjected to government surveillance suspicion and occasionally violence talking point Science and Technology access to electricity and to modern appliances designed to make communication and domestic work .

more efficient expanded dramatically in American homes during the interwar years devices for recording and playing music the radio and motion pictures brought mass popular culture into being automobiles became affordable for more Americans and transformed ordinary people's mobility the structure of American industry and national typography scientists during the interwar period made important discoveries about the size and shape of the universe as well as the nature of time in space .

the increased specialization of science as a discipline sometimes made these discoveries difficult for ordinary people to understand and led to risk between literary intellectuals and scientists talking point for the 1930s the Great Depression was not limited to the United States but was a worldwide phenomenon it fostered social unrest that led to the rise of fascist dictatorships in Europe many Americans began to question the efficacy and justice .

a free enterprise capitalism Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected in 1932 and instituted a new deal designed to combat the depression he inaugurated liberal reforms such as social security job creation acts welfare and unemployment insurance the dire economic situation in the United States produced a significant increase in communist party membership among Americans during the 1930s many supporters of communism later felt disillusioned and betrayed by the brutality of Soviet Communism under Joseph Stalin some of these left-wing activists became staunch anti-communist after world war two talking point 5 american versions of modernism in literary context the term modernism is a catch-all for any kind of literary production in the interwar period .

dealt with the modern world literary critics often designate as high modernism work that represents the transformation of society under the pressures of modernity and that breaks down traditional literary forms in doing so many high modernist texts interpret modernity as an experience of loss and represent the modern world as a scene of truth as a movement modernism involved many art forms and media including sculpture painting dance and music as well as literature high modernist words are characterized by their construction out of fragments fragments of myth or history fragments of experience or perception fragments a previous artistic work for the modern artist or writer the political social and aesthetics structures .

that had organized human experience previously no longer seemed viable in the modern world order sequence and unity did not seem to them to convey reality instead they emphasized discontinuity discordant and fragmentation as more representative of the modern experience modernist literature often conveys fragmentation through abrupt shifts in perspective voice and tone and through a reliance on sometimes obscure symbols and imagenes rather than clear statements of meaning some modernist literature draws on structure and fragments borrowed from earlier world .

literature mythologies and religions for some writers these references to earlier texts express profound truths other writers alluded to literary traditions ironically many modernist works are self reflexive or concerned with their own nature as art in this way they foreground the search for meaning and queried the role of art and the perception of art into production of meaning faced with making sense of fragments and intuiting connections left unstated the reader of a modernist work is often said to participate in the creative work of making the point or story despite their concern with involving the reader in the production of meaning modernist literature reached only a limited audience many readers found it difficult to understand the meaning of these texts fragmentation .

and to parse their often obscure allusions to other texts or traditions some major publishers sought out the works of modernist writers to publish alongside more conventional bestsellers many more modernist writers found publication in the so called little magazines which were magazines with very small circulation the number of little magazines in the period was in the hundreds talking point 6 modernism abroad and own native grounds high modernism was a self-consciously international movement and many of its leading American exponents lived as permanent or temporary expatriates in Europe.

Gertrude Stein Ezra Pound h d & TS eliot all left the united states permanently while Ernest Hemingway Sherwood Anderson F scott Fitzgerald Claude McKay Catherine and Porter nella Larsen Robert Frost and Eugene O'Neill among others spent significant periods of time abroad modernist writers claimed to find climates more hospitable to artistic achievement and high culture in Europe though they seldom thought of themselves as deserting their nation instead they believed that they were bringing the United States into the larger context of European culture many continued to write words that were overtly American in theme regionalism continued to be an important force in American literature an especially strong center of regional literary activity emerged in the south the history of race in the United States was central to the specifically national subject matter to which many American modernists remained committed the Harlem.

Renaissance brought African American writers like Countee Cullen Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston into particular prominence women writers faced a backlash after their prominence in the 19th century some male modernist

writers asserted their own seriousness by identifying women writers with the didactic popular writing against which they rebelled but women still emerge associated themselves with the important literary trends of the era many of these writers concentrated on depictions of women characters or women's thoughts .

experience yet few labeled themselves feminists talking point 7 drams although theatrical productions had been a part of American life since the 18th century drama only emerged as a branch of contemporary literature rather than a stepchild a popular entertainment between 1910 and the latter part of the 1920s it was at this point that drama began to conceive of itself as a literary form innovations in American theatre are often launched in reaction against the popular productions mounted on Broadway playwrights Susan Glaspell and Eugene O'Neill were launched off-broadway musical comedy emerged as a distinctively American dramatic form in the interwar period during the Depression .

social criticism became an important dramatic theme with political plays performed by many radical groups so now we'll begin American literature timeline 1914 to 1945 as written by the Norton Anthology 1914 to 1918 World War 19:15 the great migration of african-americans from the rural South to northern industrial cities 1917 the United States declares war on Germany revolution in Russia brings the Communist Party to power in 1918 daylight savings time is instituted to allow more daylight for war production in 1919 the Senate limits u.s. participation in the League of Nations does not ratify versailles treaty to end World War one 1920 the 18th amendment prohibits the manufacturers sell and transportation of alcoholic beverages the 19th amendment gives women the right to vote in 1920 to 1927 cycle Vanzetti trial in 1922 fascism rises in Europe Mussolini becomes the dictator of Italy in 1924 exclusionary immigration act bars Asians from the United States in 1927 the jazz singer the first full-length talkie is released in 1929 the stock market crashes the Great Depression begins in 1930 Sinclair Lewis is the first American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1931 .

the Scottsboro trial in 1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal introduces social security welfare and unemployment insurance 1933 Adolf Hitler's nationalist socialist Nazi Party comes to power in Germany the eighteenth Amendment is repealed in 1930 four wheeler Howard the Indian Reorganization Act passed ending Dawes era in 1936 Hitler begins armed occupation of Europe in 1936 to 1939 the Spanish Civil War us volunteers among those fighting against General Franco who becomes dictator of Spain in 1937 .

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The American literature written by Norton anthology time period is 1820 to 1865

The American literature written by Norton anthology time period is 1820 to 1865

 The American literature written by Norton anthology time period is 1820 to 1865

Know all the movement in this time period 1820 to 1865 in American literature in simple way .
This is education blog and take it only for education purpose.

Norton American literary nationalism is also a part of this national movement
that we see during this time period while the 1830s through 1850s is usually
identified as the period when American literature came into its own the 1820s
were actually the years when critics first agreed that the United States had
produced writers .

whose who wrote distinctively American words worthy of a
great nation this interest in producing identifiably American works and
celebrating these words can be called literary nationalism in the wake of the
American victory over England in the war of 1812 a new confidence and sense of
national identity emerged many Americans saw their country as a place of
democratic ideals that afforded opportunity to ordinary people rather
than rewarding unearned social distinction or inherited wealth writers.

like Washington earning Willem William Cullen Bryant and James Fenimore Cooper

achieved international reputations as distinctly American writers still most
Americans and certainly most American writers regarded their literature is not
necessarily distinct from but rather in conversation with English literary
traditions American writers in this period did not write uncritically
patriotic texts instead their works reflected and participated in anxieties
about the future of a young nation grappling with divisive issues such as
slavery states rights national tariffs.

other matters many writers and artists in the 1820s placed a special emphasis
on the importance of America's natural landscape for the development of
national character so the literary marketplace in an expanding nation is
also a major talking point during this particular time period so by the 1920s
Americans had easy access to British literature and criticism which thanks to
lacks international copyright laws could be republished and redistributed in the
United States almost immediately after publication in London technological
developments and printing and the expansion and railroads canals and other
forms of transportation allowed for fast expensive an economical distribution of
printed matter .

land acquired through the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
following the war with Mexico transform Americans sense of the West and the
amount of land available for settlement and exploitation travel literature about
westward expansion became a popular genre Americans became increasingly
interested in literature centered on
urban life.

in this period in large part because of the tremendous growth in the
populations of boston philadelphia and new york resulting from the irish
and the influx of rural people into the cities newspaper and
magazine publishing exploded between 1825 and the 1860s providing American
authors with new forms for their poetry fiction essays travel writing and
political reportage writers such as Edgar Allen Poe Lydia Sigourney Margaret
Fuller Nathaniel Hawthorne and Fanny fern among many others were regularly
published in periodicals women found ways to enter the antebellum literary
marketplace often by publishing in magazines their participation in the
print public sphere raised questions about how women should balance private
domestic responsibilities with public.

participation writers such as Harriet Beecher Stowe Lydia Maria Child and
Margaret Fuller among many others answered these questions in different
ways looking at Renaissance reforming conflict we see that many antebellum
writers wrestled with the conviction that American literature and culture
were not living up to the revolutionary and Democratic promises and many of
these writers incited and participated in various efforts at reform .

this time there were also a variety of notions about what constituted reform
Emerson viewed reform as central to his cultural moment and was active in
opposing slavery affirming the value of temperance supporting women's suffrage
he is more noted however for his founding role in what many literary
historians have termed the transcendentalist movement
Emerson's transcendental writings amounted to a call for philosophical and
literary reform.

transcendentalism was never really a formulated movement but its principle
certainly inspired the writing of fuller Thoreau and Whitman among others it
emphasized the creative powers of the individual mind the regenerative value
of nature the limits of historical associations and traditions the student
stole to find effects of established institutions and the mystical glories of
infancy and childhood writers such as Hawthorne and Melville were influenced
by transcendentalism .

when they grappled with the difficulties of making sense of
a universe in which meaning derives from individual creative insights rather than
received Authority concerns about the urban poor and working-class immigrants
also had an important place in Antebellum reform efforts as writers
sought to expose readers to the plight of the impoverished in order to prompt
philanthropic interventions the antebellum period.

saw a push for women's rights and particularly women's rights to vote
Elizabeth Cady Stanton presented her declaration of sentiments based on
Jefferson's Declaration of Independence at the first women's rights convention
in 1848
many women writers were also active in the temperance movement to
outlaw alcohol many Antebellum writers took as one of their main subjects the
paradox that a nation founded on principles of freedom and equality was
implicated in ongoing national crimes the near genocide of American Indians.

the enslavement of black people and an expansion that ignored other national

sovereignties including Mexico Native merican spokespersons and writers like
A black hawk and William a pest among
others criticized white Americans deceptive treaties land-grabbing
policies and cruel violations of Native American human rights resistance to
slavery and critiques of white racism were among the principal topics of
Antebellum African American writers like Frederick Douglass Francis Harper and
William wells Brown some northern white writers were also active in the push for
abolition perhaps most famously Harriet Beecher Stowe whose Uncle Tom's Cabin
was the best-selling novel of the period and for which many felt led the way to
the Civil War .

it resolved irresolvable differences between the north and the
south culminated in the Civil War a bloody conflict that cost the lives of
over 600,000 Americans before the South surrendered in 1865 after the war
writers struggled to come to grips with the devastation the war had wrought as
well as the racism political corruption and materialism that undermine efforts
to follow through on the reformist potential of the North's victory.

the small enlarged world of American writers from 18 to 25 I mean from 1820
to 1865
in our world at that time the author's included in this volume of the
anthology were often in conversation with one another and the number of
instances of direct and indirect influences counter influences
friendships and productive disagreements are stunning most of the writers
represented in the synth ology also ranged beyond the borders of the United
States either through personal travel or publication all of the writers regarded
the literature of the United States as part of a larger world literature
writers in this anthology were also interested in much more than their
contemporary moment .

they were influenced by literature from a wide range of time
periods and by literature and culture from around the globe many Antebellum
writers sought not only to uncover but also to create American literary
traditions some did this by looking back to earlier colonial texts and trying to
create a sense of conformity or continuity with and from them many
Antebellum authors who are today considered canonical were not widely
recognized in their own time Melville Whitman the row and Dickinson all found
their most enthusiastic readers in the 20th century in this way their work and
the work of many others represented in this volume engaged as much with the
future as with their own time many events took place after the
Revolutionary War .

that led the country into the direction of the Civil War that
was soon to follow in 1820 there was the Missouri Compromise been admitted
Missouri as a slave state Maine as a free state an excluded slavery in the
Louisiana territory north latitude 36 degrees by 30 degrees.

in 1821 Sequoia George gasps and this the syllabic the library in which
Cherokee language can be written in 1823 the Monroe Doctrine warns all European
powers not to establish new colonies on either American continent in 1825 the
Erie Canal opens connecting the Great Lakes region with the Atlantic in 1827
the Baltimore and Ohio is the first u.s. railroad in 1827 to 28 the Cherokee
Nation ratifies its new constitution the newspaper the Cherokee Phoenix is
founded in 1829 to 37 President Andrew Jackson encourages westward migration of
the white population in 1830 Congress passes the Indian Removal Act allowing
Jackson to negotiate treaties with the eastern tribes for the relocation west
of the Mississippi in 1831 William Lloyd Garrison starts The Liberator
anti-slavery journal nat turner leaves a slave rebellion in Southampton County
Virginia approximately 60 whites were killed and 200 blacks are killed in
retaliation in 1837 financial panic occurs failures of numerous banks lead
to severe unemployment that persist in the early 1940s in 1838 around this same
time Underground Railroad begins aiding slaves escaping north often to Canada
from 1838 to 1839 .

the Trail of Tears Cherokees were forced from their
homelands by federal troops in which thousands lost their lives
in 1840 founding of the Washingtonian Temperance Society
temperance quickly emerges as one of the most popular social reform movements of
the period in 1844 Samuel Morse invents the telegraphed which leads to the Morse
code in 1845 the united states nxs texas in 1846 David Wilmot a congressman from
Pennsylvania proposes in Congress that slavery be banned and territories gained
from the Mexican War his proviso is defeated in 1846 248 the United States
wages war against Mexico .

the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo seeds entire southwest
to the United States in 1847 Brigham Young leads Mormons from nuevo
Illinois's to Salt Lake Utah Territory in 1848 Seneca Falls convention
inaugurates campaign for women's rights in 1848 249 beginning years of the
California Gold Rush which brings hundreds of thousands of new settlers to
California in 1850 the Fugitive Slave Act of the comprar of the compromise of
1850 obliges free states to return escaped slaves to slaveholders in 1854
the Republican Party formed consolidating anti-slavery factions
kansas-nebraska Act approved by Congress.

the Act repealed the Missouri Compromise making it legal for the white voting
residents of a territory to determine whether it should be admitted as a slave
or a free state in 1857 Supreme Court Dred Scott decision denied citizenship
to african-americans.

in 1859 the first successful US oil well is drilled in Pennsylvania in 1860
short-lived Pony Express runs from Missouri to California in 1861 South
Carolina batteries fire on us for initiating the Civil War southern states
secede from the union and found the Confederate States of America in 1861 to
1865 the country is embroiled in Civil War in 1863 the Emancipation
Proclamation in the Battle of Gettysburg in 1865 the 13th amendment is passed
that abolishes slavery in the United States in 1866 completion of two
successful transatlantic cables and the Civil Rights Act movement in 1868 the
14th amendment grants citizenship to those born are naturalized in the United
States in 1869 the first transcontinental railroad is completed
the Central Pacific construction crews composed largely of Chinese laborers
those are the events that took place between 1820 and 1865 .

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American literature in 1945 period written by Norton Anthology | in easy language

American literature in 1945 period written by Norton Anthology | in easy language

 American literature in period of 1945 as written by the Norton Anthology

The American literature - American literature is one of the most important literature in this world so here we today covering all time period till 9 11 . 
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the United States and world power after the Allies defeated Germany and Japan in World War two the United States emerged as the only world power with a strong economy.

the nation's participation in World War two had reorganized the American economy in ways that changed the lifestyles and expectations of its citizens women and African Americans in particular broadened their expectation of economic and social opportunities after their participation in the war effort .

the United States exploded two atomic bombs in Japan in August 1945 the first and only atomic bombs that have ever been deployed the effect was so horrific and catastrophic that the United States shifted to a policy of amassing military strength for deterrents rather than combat this strategy was known as Cold War .

America's Cold War was directed at containing the political economic military and ideological influence of communism around the globe the Soviet Union and eventually China emerged as the main Cold War adversaries of the United States throughout the 1950s and early 1960s .

social critics perceived a stable conformity to American life as well as a dedication to an increasingly materialistic standard of living and abled by the strong economy and by the abundance of job opportunities .

American life became increasingly mobile as the population began a westward shift and more and more people relied of automobiles the interstate highway system was begun in 1955 conflicts within and resistance to this way of life purportedly based on stability and conformity Ammar.

first in the 1960s or the 60s as this period is known this tumultuous period of American history beginning with the assassination of President John F Kennedy in 1963 was characterized by its counter cultural revolt against the status .

the 60s assured in a combative period in civil rights climaxing with the most sustained and effective attempts to remedy the evils of racial discrimination since reconstruction women began to organize in the 60s to pursue their legal ethical and cultural interest a position .

now defined as feminism active dissension within the culture emerge in response to military involvement in Vietnam the nation was shocked in 1974 by the Watergate scandal a revelation of President Richard Nixon's abuses of governmental privileges that led to his resignation by the end of the 1970s some characteristics that has seen countercultural in the 60s had been accepted in mainstream American culture.

including in formalities of dress relaxation of social codes and an increased respect for individual rights the 1980s witnessed a call for a return to traditional values interpreted as a return not to community and self sacrifice .

but to the pursuit of wealth during Ronald Reagan's presidency income disparities grew while taxes fell and Americans began to focus on personal acquisition the economy boomed but shifted away from any fad training and into service and financial speculation.

the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 after American economic might had depleted its ability to compete the attack on New York's World Trade Center and the Pentagon by terrorists on September 11th 2001 shifted the nation's political agenda to a seemingly open-ended conflict with revolutionary Islamic forces talking point to literary developments .

the ideal of homogeneity and conformity so prominent in the 1950s and early 1960s led many writers to aspire to the creation of a single work short story novel poem or play that could represent the experiences of an entire people and that could attempt to represent a common national essence that lay beneath distinctions of gender race ethnicity religion or region novelists hoped to write the so-called Great American Novel that would characterize the larger aspects of the national experience playwrights to aspire to write plays.

that would be nationally representative embracing otherwise mundane characters as Universal types that could speak to monumental national issues in the 1950s and 60s poets acquired a new visibility in American life through writers conferences and workshops recordings and published and broadcast interviews and readings.

despite this increase in poetry's visibility its relatively marginal position in the nations culture when compared to that of prose fiction may have allowed it more diversity from the idea or ideal of homogeneity in the 1950s .

the poetic standard was a short lyric meditation on an object landscape or observed encounter that clarified or epitomized a feeling the period also supported poets who gave voice to previously marginalize social groups and poets who experimented with new rhythms .

the notion that any single piece of literature could represent an entire people or nation fell out of favor in the 60s as the nation itself fractured over such issues as the uses of industrial and military power the institutions of marriage and the family the rights of racial minorities women and homosexuals the use of drugs and alternative states of consciousness some writers felt that social reality had become too unstable to serve as a reliable anchor for their narratives.

some critics believed that fiction and particularly the novel was dead having exhausted its formal possibilities poetry was transformed by the appearance of two points in the late 1950s Allen Ginsberg's howl 1956 with this anti-establishment message open experimental form and strong aural emphasis and Robert Lowell's life studies 1959 with its directness .

autobiographical intensity technological advances such as the advent of television and air travel challenged boundaries of time and space and brought a global awareness that made the concept of all encompassing expressions of the world through literature seemed impossible confessional poetry and literature in the 1960s pieces that involved autobiographical revelations about difficult personal subject matter such as sex divorce alcoholism and insanity began focus on the distinctness of individual

experience not its representativeness deconstruction a literary theory first philosophers questions assumptions about developed by French linguist and the stability of language the ability of words to represent reality and the constructed by intellectual operations.

extent to which facts might be the idea of literature as a form of

self-expression was complicated by deconstructionist skepticism about the very idea of a coherent or essential self the political dissent of the 1960s opened up spaces for a range of voices and literature representing in the new and varied ways .

the experiences and views of African Americans southerners Jews feminists Native Americans Asian Americans latina Latino Americans and others this development produced a rich legacy in American literature the contemporary literary period values heterogeneity in its form and pluralism in its cultural influences contemporary literature is also increasingly preoccupied with questions about what constitutes artificiality and what constitutes authenticity or creative nonfiction reflects contemporary literature's.

and patience with the opposition between fact and fiction combining aspects of the essay memoir reportage criticism and autobiography creative nonfiction uses the techniques of fiction to make a claim to the real the Internet has produced a contemporary literary culture that is keenly aware that reality is hybrid with constant input from multiple sources contemporary literature reflects this insight with its proclivity for combining editing authoring and rearranging a the materials American literature since 1945.

timeline connections

timeline connections as written by the Norton Anthology 1945 the u.s. drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan surrenders ending war world war two cold war begins 1947 Jackie Robinson becomes the first black major league ballplayer 1950 Senator Joseph McCarthy begins attacks on communism 1950 to 1953 the Korean War 1953 House concurrent resolution 108 dictates government's intention to terminate its treaty relations with the Native American tribes 1954 Brown versus Board of Education declares segregated schools unconstitutional Beat Generation poets begin to gather at San Francisco's City.

Lights bookshop 1956 Martin Luther King jr. leads bus boycott and Montgomery Alabama 1959 Fidel Castro becomes communist leader of Cuba 1960 Woolworth lunch counters sit in at Greensboro North Carolina marks the beginning of civil rights movement 1962 the United States and Soviet Union close to war over Russian missiles based in Cuba.

missiles are withdrawn 1963 King delivers I have a dream speech black church and Birmingham Alabama is bombed killing 4 girls President John F Kennedy is assassinated 1965 riots break out in watts section of Los Angeles Malcolm X is assassinated the hippie culture flourishes and Franziska 1965 to 1973 the Vietnam War era 1966 National Organization for Women.

now founded Hayden and Brooks criticized at black Writers Conference Fisk University for composing academic poetry 1968 King is assassinated Senator Robert F Kennedy is also assassinated photo of Earth rise by Apollo 8 1969 US astronauts land on the moon Stonewall Riots and New York City initiate gay liberation movement.

Woodstock Festival held near Bethel New York 1970 National Guard kills for students during anti-war demonstration at Kent State University Ohio 1972 Watergate scandal military draft ends 1973 Roe vs. Wade.

legalizes abortion American Indian Movement members occupy Wounded Knee South Dakota 1974 President Richard Nixon resigns in wake of Watergate avoiding impeachment 1976 the US Bicentennial 1982 Equal Rights Amendment is defeated anti-nuclear movement protests manufacture of nuclear weapons aids officially identified in the United States .

1989 Soviet Union collapses the cold war ends oil tanker Exxon Valdez runs aground in Alaska 1990 Congress passes Native American graves protection and repatriation act 1991 the United States enters the Persian Gulf War World Wide Web is introduced 1995 Federal Building in Oklahoma City bombed in a terrorist attack 1997 Pathfinder robot explores Mars 2001 execution of Timothy McVeigh convicted of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing September 11 terrorist attacks on Pentagon and World Trade Center 2003 .

the United States and the Great Britain invade Iraq 2007 advent of worst economic resession since the Great Depression 2009 inauguration of Barack Obama as US President 2010 massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico 2011 death of terrorist leader Osama bin Laden architect of the 9-1-1 attacks.

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