American literature written by Norton Anthology | from 1914 to 1945 with simple explanation

American literature from 1914 to 1945

With explanation. 

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American literature today from 1914 to 1945

written by the Norton Anthology and we'll begin with talking point 1 the

The two war as historical markers the two world

wars World War one 1914 to 1918 and world war two 1939 to 1945 bracket a period during which the United States became a fully modern nation both wars.

mobilized the countries industries and technologies spurred their development and uprooted citizens World War one left many Americans distrustful of international politics and committed to steering the nation back to pre-war modes of life many were weary of the growing influence of socialist and communist ideas.

which they associated with labor unions and immigrant radicals Congress and active sweeping exclusionary immigration acts in 1924 radically curtailing the flow of immigrants into the country for other Americans World War one assured in more progressive forms of political and social life women and racial minorities gained some civil liberties and some new social freedoms during this period.

Great Depression

though they were still faced with discrimination political social and

cultural life in the United States was transformed by the stock market crash of 1929 which led to an economic depression with a 25 percent unemployment rate this economic catastrophe was known as the the Great Depression did not fully end until the United States entered World War two in 1941 the war unified the country politically and revitalized industry and employment the United States emerged from World War two as a major industrial and political power.

Literature of morden world

the literature of the modern period reflects the nation's attempts to come to terms with the many meanings of modernity some writers celebrated modern developments while others lamented them most writers believed that old literary forms would not work for new times and were inspired by the possibility of creating something entirely new writer of the period debated the uses of literary tradition some wanted to honor traditional forms and language and to include allusions to kena nautical works of the past others saw such Houma jazz imitative or old-fashioned still others is literary tradition oppositional e alluding to Kenna nautical literature ironically our fracturing traditional literary formulas writers of the period.

also debated the place of popular culture in serious literature some embrace popular forms while others rejected them as cynical commercialism another issue was the question of how far literature should engage itself in political and social struggle some felt that art should participate in the politics of the time while others unto itself talking point to changing times the 1920s saw ideological debates pitting adherence to small-town values such as the work ethic social conformity duty and responsibility against internationally minded radicals and affluent young people who argued for more diverse permissive.

and tolerant lifestyles the social codes governing sexual behavior became less restrictive these social changes found their most influential theorists an Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud inventor of the practice of psychoanalysis an important developer of the concept of the unconscious women gain the right to vote in 1920 and found new freedoms and educational possibilities professional opportunities Geographic mobility and sexuality around 1915 as a direct result of the industrial needs of the World War one job opportunities opened up for African Americans in the factories of the north many left the south for northern cities and what came to be known as the great migration.

even though African Americans faced racism segregation and racial violence in the north a black American presence soon became powerfully visible in urban cultural life the Harlem Renaissance an outpouring of innovative cultural production by African Americans centered in Harlem a neighborhood of New York City was one manifestation of this development class inequality generated intellectual and artistic debate during the modern period .

German philosopher Karl Marx

following the rise of the Soviet Union the American Left increasingly drew its intellectual and political program from the tenants of who located the roots of human behavior in economics and believed that industrialized societies were divided by an antagonistic relationship between capital and labour Americans who thought of themselves as marxist in the 1920s and 1930s were usually subjected to government surveillance suspicion and occasionally violence talking point Science and Technology access to electricity and to modern appliances designed to make communication and domestic work .

more efficient expanded dramatically in American homes during the interwar years devices for recording and playing music the radio and motion pictures brought mass popular culture into being automobiles became affordable for more Americans and transformed ordinary people's mobility the structure of American industry and national typography scientists during the interwar period made important discoveries about the size and shape of the universe as well as the nature of time in space .

the increased specialization of science as a discipline sometimes made these discoveries difficult for ordinary people to understand and led to risk between literary intellectuals and scientists talking point for the 1930s the Great Depression was not limited to the United States but was a worldwide phenomenon it fostered social unrest that led to the rise of fascist dictatorships in Europe many Americans began to question the efficacy and justice .

a free enterprise capitalism Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected in 1932 and instituted a new deal designed to combat the depression he inaugurated liberal reforms such as social security job creation acts welfare and unemployment insurance the dire economic situation in the United States produced a significant increase in communist party membership among Americans during the 1930s many supporters of communism later felt disillusioned and betrayed by the brutality of Soviet Communism under Joseph Stalin some of these left-wing activists became staunch anti-communist after world war two talking point 5 american versions of modernism in literary context the term modernism is a catch-all for any kind of literary production in the interwar period .

dealt with the modern world literary critics often designate as high modernism work that represents the transformation of society under the pressures of modernity and that breaks down traditional literary forms in doing so many high modernist texts interpret modernity as an experience of loss and represent the modern world as a scene of truth as a movement modernism involved many art forms and media including sculpture painting dance and music as well as literature high modernist words are characterized by their construction out of fragments fragments of myth or history fragments of experience or perception fragments a previous artistic work for the modern artist or writer the political social and aesthetics structures .

that had organized human experience previously no longer seemed viable in the modern world order sequence and unity did not seem to them to convey reality instead they emphasized discontinuity discordant and fragmentation as more representative of the modern experience modernist literature often conveys fragmentation through abrupt shifts in perspective voice and tone and through a reliance on sometimes obscure symbols and imagenes rather than clear statements of meaning some modernist literature draws on structure and fragments borrowed from earlier world .

literature mythologies and religions for some writers these references to earlier texts express profound truths other writers alluded to literary traditions ironically many modernist works are self reflexive or concerned with their own nature as art in this way they foreground the search for meaning and queried the role of art and the perception of art into production of meaning faced with making sense of fragments and intuiting connections left unstated the reader of a modernist work is often said to participate in the creative work of making the point or story despite their concern with involving the reader in the production of meaning modernist literature reached only a limited audience many readers found it difficult to understand the meaning of these texts fragmentation .

and to parse their often obscure allusions to other texts or traditions some major publishers sought out the works of modernist writers to publish alongside more conventional bestsellers many more modernist writers found publication in the so called little magazines which were magazines with very small circulation the number of little magazines in the period was in the hundreds talking point 6 modernism abroad and own native grounds high modernism was a self-consciously international movement and many of its leading American exponents lived as permanent or temporary expatriates in Europe.

Gertrude Stein Ezra Pound h d & TS eliot all left the united states permanently while Ernest Hemingway Sherwood Anderson F scott Fitzgerald Claude McKay Catherine and Porter nella Larsen Robert Frost and Eugene O'Neill among others spent significant periods of time abroad modernist writers claimed to find climates more hospitable to artistic achievement and high culture in Europe though they seldom thought of themselves as deserting their nation instead they believed that they were bringing the United States into the larger context of European culture many continued to write words that were overtly American in theme regionalism continued to be an important force in American literature an especially strong center of regional literary activity emerged in the south the history of race in the United States was central to the specifically national subject matter to which many American modernists remained committed the Harlem.

Renaissance brought African American writers like Countee Cullen Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston into particular prominence women writers faced a backlash after their prominence in the 19th century some male modernist

writers asserted their own seriousness by identifying women writers with the didactic popular writing against which they rebelled but women still emerge associated themselves with the important literary trends of the era many of these writers concentrated on depictions of women characters or women's thoughts .

experience yet few labeled themselves feminists talking point 7 drams although theatrical productions had been a part of American life since the 18th century drama only emerged as a branch of contemporary literature rather than a stepchild a popular entertainment between 1910 and the latter part of the 1920s it was at this point that drama began to conceive of itself as a literary form innovations in American theatre are often launched in reaction against the popular productions mounted on Broadway playwrights Susan Glaspell and Eugene O'Neill were launched off-broadway musical comedy emerged as a distinctively American dramatic form in the interwar period during the Depression .

social criticism became an important dramatic theme with political plays performed by many radical groups so now we'll begin American literature timeline 1914 to 1945 as written by the Norton Anthology 1914 to 1918 World War 19:15 the great migration of african-americans from the rural South to northern industrial cities 1917 the United States declares war on Germany revolution in Russia brings the Communist Party to power in 1918 daylight savings time is instituted to allow more daylight for war production in 1919 the Senate limits u.s. participation in the League of Nations does not ratify versailles treaty to end World War one 1920 the 18th amendment prohibits the manufacturers sell and transportation of alcoholic beverages the 19th amendment gives women the right to vote in 1920 to 1927 cycle Vanzetti trial in 1922 fascism rises in Europe Mussolini becomes the dictator of Italy in 1924 exclusionary immigration act bars Asians from the United States in 1927 the jazz singer the first full-length talkie is released in 1929 the stock market crashes the Great Depression begins in 1930 Sinclair Lewis is the first American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1931 .

the Scottsboro trial in 1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal introduces social security welfare and unemployment insurance 1933 Adolf Hitler's nationalist socialist Nazi Party comes to power in Germany the eighteenth Amendment is repealed in 1930 four wheeler Howard the Indian Reorganization Act passed ending Dawes era in 1936 Hitler begins armed occupation of Europe in 1936 to 1939 the Spanish Civil War us volunteers among those fighting against General Franco who becomes dictator of Spain in 1937 .

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