Norton Anthology of american literature | know all about American literature written by Norton Anthology

Norton Anthology of american literature

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the cultural connections between 1865 to 1914 as

written by the Norton Anthology so the first talking point for this particular
time period is the transformation of a nation the Civil War and the enormous devastation and loss of life it caused left the United States morally exhausted at its conclusion at the same time.

Time period 1869

The war stimulated innovations that helped the country prosper materially for next five decades the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869 with the use of poorly paid laborers from China the railroad made it possible for people in goods to cross the country fastly and inexpensively thereby moving the American economy into the Industrial Age.

Time period 1893

the telegraph electricity and the telephone began to revolutionize daily life historian Frederick Jackson Turner declared in 1893 that the western frontier no longer existed as a frontier but was instead settled he set forth the theory that the frontier was and to the formation of a distinctive democratic American identity
eager to compete with European nations.
the United States sought to expand its influence and land holdings beyond its continental borders engaging in conflicts in Cuba Puerto Rico the Philippines in Hawaii American expansionism continued to impinge on the rights and cultures of Native American peoples as US government policies force them off their traditional lands by the late 19th century.

well-meaning but misguided white philanthropists began agitating for the assimilation of Native Americans into the white mainstream by imposing white schooling white patterns of town settlement and agriculture and white religion industrialization and manufacturing on an unprecedented scale immersed in the United States at the end of the 19th century.

major industries were consolidated into monopolies allowing a small number of men to control enormously profitable enterprises and still oil railroads meatpacking banking and finance called robber barons by some and celebrated as captains of industry by others these men squeezed out competitors and accumulated vast wealth and power immigration exploded between 1870 and 1920.

Refuge arrives
especially with the arrival of millions of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe immigrants often settled in urban centers increasing the relative populations of cities versus rural areas in the United States rural farmers cultivating traditional family-run operations found it difficult to compete as railroads and land speculators drove up the price of land large-scale farming soon took over from the family farm increasing agricultural yields .
but displacing many farmers industrial workers received low wages labored and inhumane and dangerous conditions and had few legal protections regulating safety and working hours neither farmer nor urban laborers organized effectively to protect their own interest talking point to the literary marketplace rapid transcontinental settlement and changing urban industrial conditions introduced new themes new forms new subjects new characters new regions and new authors in the half-century following the Civil War the numbers circulation and influence of newspapers and magazines grew in this period many of the noted authors of the era started as newspaper journalists and or published in Magna Jeanne's American writers of this period increasingly adopted the form of realism in their fiction critically praised writers such as Mark Twain William Dean Howells Henry James and Edith Wharton used literary realism to different effect and to address different concerns though all were interested in constructing distinctively American protagonists though the focus of the era was mostly on prose fiction Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson wrote important poetry in this period forms of realism and naturalism.

the term realism refers by him movement in English European and

American literature that emphasized the truthful treatment of material as William Dean Howells put it most realization focused on the observabl surfaces of the world and which fictional characters lived and strove to make those surfaces seem lifelike to their readers some realist writers strove to represent the experiences of poor or outsider characters while others emphasize.

the interior moral and psychological lives of elite wealthy characters naturalism can be thought of as a version of realism or as an alternative to it literary naturalist unlike the realist for whom human beings define themselves within recognizable settings wrote about human life as it was shaped by forces beyond human control naturalism often introduced characters from the fringes and depths of society whose lives spin out of control.
naturalist wanted to explore how biology environment and other natural forces shaped lives particularly the lives of lower-class people naturalist writers thought of their work as scientific in its exploration of deterministic effects and thus truly realistic rather than romantic talking point for regional writing .

Other expression of realist impulse
another expression of the realist impulse regional writing arose out of the desire both to record distinctive ways of life and to come to terms with the new world that seemed to be replacing earlier regional ways of life local colorists were dedicated to capturing the natural social and linguistic features of particular regions many women writers initially associated with regionalism expanded their interest to write more broadly about the world of women Native American writers describe their lives and traditions especially as these were imperiled by wide advances into their territories in so doing they widen public appreciation of literary models outside.

the European tradition while also challenging the dominant cultures identification of the West with the. imaginary line of the frontier talking point five realism as argument realism in fiction was an important spur to the development of nonfiction which described analyzed and critiqued the social economic and political institutions that emerge between the end of the Civil War and the outbreak of World War one nonfiction writers penned articles and books on such topics as women's rights political corruption the degradation of the natural world economic inequality business deceptions.
the exploitation of labor
the exploitation of labor and tenement housing of all the issues of the day perhaps the most persistent and resistant to solution was racial inequality the end of Reconstruction in 1877 saw the withdrawal of federal troops from the southern states and the shift to segregationist Jim Crow laws following the Supreme Court's separate-but-equal decision in Plessy versus Ferguson in 1896 black Americans saw a considerable erosion of the constitutional amendments that have promised to guarantee their civil rights among the many african-american writers.
addressing issues of black community and racial inequality we be two Bois and Booker T Washington emerged as important advocates of different strategies to hasten equality for blacks in the United States.
Du Bois
Du Bois largely rejected Washington's more conciliatory and assimilationist philosophy timeline connections from 1865 to 1920 1860 short-lived Pony Express runs from Missouri to California 1861 South Carolina batteries fire on Fort Sumter initiated the Civil War southern states secede from the union and found the Confederate States of America 1865 the civil war ends reconstruction begins Lincoln is assassinated the 13th amendment is ratified prohibiting slavery 1867 the United States purchases Alaska from Russia Jesse Chisholm maps out the Chisholm Trail connecting Texas cattle ranches to railroads Arel heads in Kansas City Cheyenne Dodge City and Abilene 1868 the 14th amendment is passed guaranteeing citizenship to all peoples born in the United States exclusive of native peoples Congress Institute's eight-hour work day for federas employees sweatshops using mostly immigrant labor begin to proliferate in cities 1869 the first transcontinental red road completed by construction crews composed largely of Chinese laborers Anthony is elected president of American Equal Rights Association Elizabeth B Cady Stanton is elected president of national women's suffrage association 1870 the 15th amendment giving African American men the right to vote is ratified 1871 Indian appropriation act ends .

the practice of negotiating treaties with the tribes as sovereign nations 1872 Yellowstone the first u.s. national park is established 1873 economic panic financial depression lasts until 1879, 1874 women's Christian Temperance Union is founded in Cleveland the invention of barbed wire effectively ends .

the open range 1876 Custer's regiment defeated by the Sioux and Cheyenne at little at Little Bighorn River Montana Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone 1877 reconstruction ends segregationist Jim Crow laws begin 1879 Thomas Edison invents the electric light bulb female lawyers permitted to argue before Supreme Court 1880 to 1910 massive immigration from Europe 1881 Tuskegee Institute is founded 1882 JD Rockefeller organizes Standard Oil Trust Chinese Exclusion Act is instituted 1884 Taylor strike in New York City brings national attention to sweatshops 1886 the Statue of Liberty is dedicated Haymarket Square labor riot leaves 11 dead American Federation of Labor is organized 1887 general allotment act or Dawes Act.

Indians and non Indians

permits the president to divide tribally owned lands into individual allotments to be held in trust for 25 years with surplus lands to be sold to non-indians this led the Indians to lose some 90 million acres of land by the time Dawes was repealed in 1934 1890 the US Bureau of census declares the frontier to be closed there is no more free or unoccupied land Sitting Bull is killed Massacre a Bigfoots minute kanjou banned by federal troops at one Wounded Knee Creek ends the Ghost Dance among the Sioux Ellis Island immigration station opens 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson up holes segregated transportation 1897 298 Klondike Gold Rush 1900 US population exceeds 75 million 1901 JP Morgan found US Steel Corporation the first transatlantic radio oil is discovered in Spindletop Texas 1903 Henry Ford found Ford Motor Company the Wright brothers make the first successful airplane front flight the Great Train Robbery is firs used u.s. cinematic narrative the Great Train Robbery is first u.s. cinematic narrative 1904 national child labor committee is formed 1905 Industrial Workers of the world the Wobblies founded 1906 April 18th San Francisco earthquake and fire 1909 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People the n-double-a-cp is founded 1910 the Mexican Revolution 1914 US Marine invade and occupy Veracruz Mexico Panama Canal opens.
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